Beauties and Seven Daytime Flowers (Bijin shichi yoka) presented beautiful women of the Imperial court paired with large details of flowers. The bijin were identified by their rank, and the prints were produced utilizing vibrant pigments which were newly available after Japan opened its ports to the international trade. The synthetic dyes used for textiles and print production which first appeared on the market in the mid-1860s provided an inexpensive way to render what were previously exorbitantly expensive colors - most specifically in the range from red to purple. By the early 1870s publishers increasingly employed a saturated red pigment called carmine lake which was derived from crushed cochineal bugs, and by 1877 a new aniline dye called eosin red was introduced to great dramatic effect, as evidenced by this lush series of beauties from the court. Prints emphasizing reds and purples were particularly evident among kaika-e (lit. 'enlightenment pictures') reveling in the rapid Westernization of society. Later the term aka-e (lit. 'red pictures' - previously referred to all-red prints designed as talisman to ward off small pox) was used to encompass prints from this period reflecting the vogue for reds which were likewise associated with the modernization of Japan in general and Emperor Meiji and his family in particular.

Schaap 2011, p. 164, series no. 66

Tree Peony, Totsutsuji Kiyoko
Beauties and Seven Daytime Flowers: Plum, Nishinotoin Shigeko
Beauties and Seven Daytime Flowers: Begonia, Marikoji Yoshiko

Scholten Japanese Art is open Monday - Friday, and some Saturdays by appointment only

Contact Katherine Martin at
(212) 585-0474 or email
to schedule a visit between 11am and 4pm preferably for no more than two individuals at a time.
Visitors are asked to wear face masks and practice social distancing at their discretion.

site last updated
January 17, 2022

Scholten Japanese Art
145 West 58th Street, suite 6D
New York, New York 10019
ph: (212) 585-0474
fx: (212) 585-0475